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Black Seminoles, Maroons and Freedom Seekers in Florida, Part 1: Early Freedom Seekers In Florida
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Black Seminoles, Maroons and Freedom Seekers in Florida, Part 1: Early Freedom Seekers in Florida

Long before Florida was a U. S. state, it was home to diverse freedom seekers who found refuge from slavery, established thriving communities and prospered on Florida's frontier. Part 1 of this series looks at Florida's earliest African Ancestored inhabitants and how they lived their lives.

Florida's Native Inhabitants

Florida' original inhabitants were southeastern Native Americans who had occupied the land for many generations. These were the native populations that European explorers such as Panfilo de Narvaez and Hernando De Soto encountered when they made landfall on the Florida peninsula and set out to explore the interior of North America.

As Europeans sought to colonize the New World, southeastern North America became a contested area for Spain, England and France. After 1776, the United States also joined the colonial struggle for control of the southeast. The Florida peninsula in particular was much sought after by imperials who hoped to control the rich and strategic shipping routes in the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico (Milanich 1995).



Image: Black Seminole Subchief Gopher John
With Kind Permission of the Florida State Archives Online



The arrival of European explorers and conquistadors in the mid sixteenth century marked the beginning of a drastic population decline that characterized European contact and colonialism in North America. During the First Spanish Period (before 1763) the Spanish Crown had a tenuous hold on her La Florida colony, and could never invest the money or military resources needed to defend the colony.

Instead, the Crown relied upon a system of mission settlements designed to Christianize the native inhabitants and create a population buffer along the borders of the Spanish frontier (Mahon and Weisman 1996). Florida’s native populations, who came into extensive contact with early explorers and Spanish colonials, were severely impacted by the Spanish presence and were nearly extinct by the year 1700. The Spanish sought to repopulate the La Florida colony by welcoming Native Americans and African Ancestored people from other parts of southeastern North America who would pledge their allegiance to Spain (Mahon and Weisman 1996).

Early Freedom Seekers in Florida

As early as 1687, the Spanish government had unofficially offered asylum to British slaves, in an attempt to break Britain’s economic stronghold in the borderlands around Spanish Florida. In 1693 that asylum was made official when the Spanish crown offered limited freedom to any slave escaping to Spanish Florida who would accept Catholicism. When the English established the border colony of Georgia in 1733, the Spanish Crown made it known once again that runaways would find freedom in Spanish Florida, in return for Catholic conversion and a term of four years in service to the crown (Riordan 1996:25).

Fort Mose: Fortress of Freedom

Incoming freedom seekers were recognized as free, mustered into the Spanish militia and placed into service at the Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose military fort north of St. Augustine, which was established in 1783. Their leader, who had fled from slavery in the English Carolina colony, was known to the Spaniards as Francisco Menendez.

In 1740, English forces led by James Oglethorpe attacked and destroyed the fort, sending its inhabitants to the refuge of St. Augustine, where they lived until Fort Mose was rebuilt near its old location in 1752. Florida was ceded to the English in 1763 and most of the inhabitants, including many black militia troops, migrated to Cuba with the evacuating Spanish. Other black militia members chose to stay and make their lives in English Florida (Landers 1999; Landers and MacMahon 1995).

Africans and Native Americans

The incoming English government soon learned that Florida was a magnet to Africans and African Americans in North America who sought freedom from slavery. Once in Florida, freedom seekers encountered the Creek and Seminole Native Americans who had established settlements there at the invitation of the Spanish government. Those who chose to make their lives among the Creeks and Seminoles were welcomed into Native American society.

Governor John Moultrie wrote to the English Board of Trade in 1771 that “It has been a practice for a good while past, for negroes to run away from their Masters, and get into the Indian towns, from whence it proved very difficult to get them back.” When British government officials pressured the Seminoles to return runaway slaves, they replied that they had merely given hungry people food, and invited the slaveholders to catch the runaways themselves (Schafer 2001:96).

Creek and Seminole “Slaves”

Porter (1996) states that during British rule, government officials had presented Creek and Seminole leaders with “King’s gifts” of slaves in return for service to the crown. Some Seminole chiefs also began to buy enslaved Africans at this time; noting the prestige that both the Spanish and English attached to slave ownership. They frequently paid in cattle for such purchases (Simmons 1822:75). By the 1790s, wealth was increasingly determined by slave ownership. By 1793, Alachua leader King Payne, nephew of the Alachua immigrant Cowkeeper, was reported to have owned twenty slaves (Weisman 2000:141).

The Seminoles’ concept of slavery was very different than that of the whites. While it is true that the Creeks and Seminoles had taken slaves before blacks came among them in appreciable numbers, these were frequently war captives, who were expected to fill the labor demands of warriors lost in battles. Some were eventually adopted into the tribe, especially if they intermarried with their new captors, which was often encouraged (Covington 1993).

Even though early Seminole settlers in Florida are said to have owned “a considerable number of Yamassee slaves” (Covington 1993:13), these were generally well treated, and children born to Seminole Indians and Yamassee captives were not considered slaves (Covington 1993:14). Thus, Seminole society had no cultural antecedent of chattel slavery to govern their relations with their new “possessions.”

When the new wave of runaway slaves began to pour into Florida, The Seminoles provided them with tools for building houses and planting crops. Black Seminoles lived apart from their masters in a sort of vassalage, enjoyed great personal freedom, owned property and livestock, and were indebted to their “masters” only for a share of their yearly productions, and for military allegiance.

Inhabitants of each town were formally linked by tribute and allegiance obligations to the Seminole village of their master. These Africans, an Indian agent reported, also had “horses, cows and hogs, with which the Indian owner never presumed to meddle” (Klos 1989:59). They were of course required to provide the Seminoles with a portion of the slaughter, but retained for themselves all of their surplus productions from animal husbandry (Porter 1996:5). According to Porter, “It was a mutually beneficial relationship. The ‘owner’ provided protection, and the ‘slave’ paid a modest amount in return. This arrangement was, obviously, quite different from traditional plantation bondage” (Porter 1996:5).

Early Black Seminole and Maroon Communities

By the time of the Revolutionary War, Florida had been a haven for runaway slaves for more than seventy years. The outbreak of hostilities of the Revolution afforded enslaved persons yet another opportunity to give their masters the slip, and they did so in great numbers. Many of these freedom seekers found shelter among the Seminoles.

At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, there were already established Black Seminole villages near major Seminole towns with an estimated 430 inhabitants. By the end of the Revolution, hundreds of East Florida plantation slaves were unaccounted for. Some fled to the Seminoles, while others established maroon communities, encountered little colonial government oversight and enjoyed peaceful relations with Seminoles and Black Seminoles (Riordan 1996). By 1800, Black Seminoles and maroons had established several more villages in the area between the Apalachicola River and Tampa Bay (Weisman 2000).

Black Seminole Society

Mulroy provides us with a comparison of the daily lives of the Seminoles and Black Seminoles: “These maroons lived in much the same way as the Seminoles. They resided in cabins of palmetto planks lashed to upright posts and thatched with leaves. They also dressed like southeastern Indians” (Mulroy 1993:20). Many other aspects of Seminole and Black Seminole existence were the same: “The economic arrangements of the black and Indian towns were similar, being based upon communal agriculture and hunting, the only significant difference being that the Africans apparently were the more successful farmers and owned more property than the Seminoles” (Mulroy 1993:20).

While many aspects of the two groups’ daily lives were similar, others were quite distinct. According to Mulroy, “The differences formed the bases of the maroons’ ethnicity and defined them as a people” (Mulroy 1993:22). Although the Black Seminoles quickly mastered the language of their allies, their primary language was a Creole tongue related to Gullah. Religious beliefs and traditions also differed from those of the Seminole and frequently incorporated African, Creole, Spanish, and Indian elements, reflecting the diverse origins and experiences of Black Seminole society members (Mulroy 1993:22).

As was Seminole society, Black Seminole society was stratified. Some community members were field hands; others warriors; and still others occupied the high status of “chief negro” or “sense bearer.” The latter were interpreters and even advisors to their Seminole “masters;” chosen because of their knowledge of the language and customs of the whites (Porter 1996:6; Weisman 2000:142). Some of their names survive. Abraham stood in this relationship to Micanopy, Harry to Eneha Micco or Emathloche, John Caesar to King Philip and Whan to King Payne (Brown 1991:39; Simmons 1822:76).

The first Black Seminoles were a culturally diverse group of individuals who drew together for a common purpose: to pursue the relative freedom of life among Native Americans over enslavement to the Europeans or Americans. Some had been born in Africa and were first generation former slaves, while others were born into plantation slavery. Some were skilled craftpersons; having been sailors, carpenters, cooks, bakers, shoemakers and other technicians in servitude (Landers 1995).

As time passed, others were born among the Seminole or other Indian nations, and followed their customs from birth. Wright describes their manner of dress: “They dressed like natives—in stroud cloth flaps, moccasins, leggings, linen or cotton shirts, knee-length coats, and cloth turbans often adorned with ostrich feathers” (Mulroy 1993; Wright 1986:74). Thus diverse life experiences and cultural traditions contributed to the amalgam that was Black Seminole society.

The earliest Black Seminole settlements were near Seminole towns in the north and central peninsula in present-day Alachua, Hernando, Leon and Levy counties (Weisman 1999). Documentary accounts of the earliest Seminole settlements are sparse and rarely mention the names of associated Black Seminole villages or their occupants. It is only after 1812 that Florida’s many Black Seminoles come into historical focus through documentary accounts.

Please read the next article in our three part series: Black Seminoles, Maroons and Freedom Seekers in Florida, Part 2: The Beginning of Troubled Times. Part 3 of our three part series: Black Seminoles, Maroons and Freedom Seekers in Florida, Part 3: The Destruction of Angola, chronicles the Coweta raid upon Florida, the destruction of the Angola community, and the aftermath, when many freedom seekers fled to the Bahamas.










Image: Comparison of Seminole/Black Seminole Dress, Adapted from Images Online at the Florida State Archives














References Cited


Brown, Canter Jr.
1990 The "Sarrazota, or Runaway Negro Plantations": Tampa Bay's First Black Community, 1812-1821. Tampa Bay History 12(2):5-19.

1991 Florida's Peace River Frontier. Orlando: University of Central Florida Press.

Covington, James W.1993 The Seminoles of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Klos, George
1989 Blacks and the Seminole Removal Debate. Florida Historical Quarterly 68(1):56-79.

Landers, Jane
1995 Slave Resistance on the Southeastern Frontier: Fugitives, Maroons, and Banditti in the Age of Revolutions. El Escribiano 32:12-49.

1999 Black Society in Spanish Florida. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Landers, Jane and Darcie MacMahon
1995 Fort Mose: Colonial America's Black Fortress of Freedom. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Mahon, John K.
1985 History of the Second Seminole War. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

Mahon, John K., and Brent R. Weisman
1996 Florida's Seminole and Miccosukee Peoples. In The New History of Florida. M. Gannon, ed. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Milanich, Jerald T.
1995 Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Mulroy, Kevin
1993 Freedom on the Border: The Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila, and Texas.
Lubbock, Texas: Texas Tech University Press.

Porter, Kenneth Wiggins
1996 The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida.

Riordan, Patrick
1996 Finding Freedom in Florida: Native Peoples, African Americans, and Colonists, 1670-1816. Florida Historical Quarterly 75(1):25-44.

Schafer, Daniel L.
2001 St. Augustine's British Years. El Escribiano (The Journal of the St. Augustine Historical Society)38.

Simmons, William H.
1822 Notices of East Florida, With an Account of the Seminole Nation of Indians. Charleston.

Weisman, Brent R.
1999 Unconquered People: Florida's Seminole and Miccosukee Indians. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

2000 The Plantation System of the Florida Seminole Indians and Black Seminoles During the Colonial Era. In Colonial Plantations and Economy in Florida. J. Landers, ed. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Wright, J. Leitch, Jr.
1986 Creeks & Seminoles: The Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

This article may be printed and freely shared for nonprofit purposes, as long as this notice and citation appear with the article:

This article was prepared for The USF Africana Heritage Project (www.africanaheritage.com) by Toni Carrier. Citation:

Carrier, Toni
2005 "Black Seminoles, Maroons and Freedom Seekers in Florida, Part 1: Early Freedom Seekers in Florida." The USF Africana Heritage Project, http://www.africanaheritage.com








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