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Black History Month: African American History Articles Online at USF
At the USF PALMM Collection
Did you know that the PALMM Collection at the University of South Florida offers free access to articles on African American history? Anyone can access and print these articles.

The PALMM Collection (Publication of Archival, Library & Museum Materials) is a cooperative initiative of the public universities of Florida to provide digital access to important source materials for research and scholarship.

PALMM projects may involve a single university or may be collaborative efforts between a university and partners within or outside of the state university system. PALMM projects create high-quality virtual collections relevant to students and the research community.

The articles below are merely a sample of what you will find in the collection. Please follow the links below to access articles on African American history, and please be sure to visit and search the PALMM collection to find articles that are relevant to your particular research interest.

Please Note: The PALMM Collection website often shuts down after midnight for maintenance.

"Dignity and Importance:" Slavery in Jefferson County, Florida-1827 TO 1860 by Larry Rivers

An "African Prince, Majestic is His Wrath": William S. McFeely's Biography of Frederick Douglass by Willard B. Gatewood

Challenging the Masters: Recent Studies on Slavery and Freedom by Christopher Morris

Frederick Douglass and the Building of a Wall of Anti-Slavery Fire, 1845-1846. An Essay Review by Willard B. Gatewood, Jr.

Negro Slavery in Florida Part I by Edwin L. Williams Jr.

Negro Slavery in Florida Part II by Edwin L. Williams Jr.

Race Relations in Territorial Florida, 1821-1845 by Canter Brown, Jr.

Skilled Slave Labor in Florida: 1850-1860 by Christopher E. Linsin

Slave Unrest in Florida by Ray Granade

Slavery and the Political Economy of Gadsden County, Florida: 1823-1861 by Larry E. Rivers

Slavery and White Servitude in East Florida, 1726-1776 by Wilbur H. Siebert

Slavery in East Florida, 1776-1785 by Wilbur H. Siebert

The Legal Status of the Negro in Florida by Thelma Bates

Toward a More Humane Oppression: Florida's Slave Codes, 1821-1861 by Joseph Conan Thompson

Plantation Economy in Leon County 1830-1840 by Julia F. Hering

Plantation Self-Sufficiency in Leon County, Florida: 1824-1860 by Margaret T. Ordoez

The Slave Trade
A Florida Slave Sale by Peter D. Klingman

Illegal Importations: Enforcement of the Slave Trade Laws Along the Florida Coast, 1810-1828 by Frances J. Stafford

Slave Trading in Antebellum Florida by Julia F. Smith

The Schooner Emperor: An Incident of the Illegal Slave Trade in Florida by Dorothy Dodd

Zephaniah Kingsley, Nonconformist (1765-1843) by Philip S. May

Freedom Seekers and Maroons
Black Slaves, Red Masters, White Middlemen: A Congressional Debate of 1852 by James E. Sefton

Finding Freedom in Florida: Native Peoples, African Americans, and Colonists, 1670-1816 by Patrick Riordan

The Exiles of Florida;: or, The Crimes Committed by Our Government Against the Maroons, Who Fled from South Carolina, and Other Slave States, Seeking Protection Under Spanish Laws (The 1858 publication by Joshua Giddings.)

Events at Prospect Bluff on the Apalachicola River, 1808-1818 by Mark F. Boyd (This article describes the destruction of the "Negro Fort.")

Spanish Sanctuary: Fugitives in Florida, 1687-1790 by Jane Landers

The Return of Runaway Slaves 1790-1794 by Richard K. Murdoch

Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker, at Pensacola, Florida, for Aiding Slaves to Escape from Bondage: With an Appendix, Containing a Sketch of his Life. 1845 edition by Johnathan Walker.

A Free Negro Purchases his Daughter by Herbert J. Doherty Jr.

The Free Negro in Florida Before the Civil War by Russell Garvin

The Voluntary Exile of Free Negroes of Pensacola by Ruth B. Barr and Modeste Hargis

Tom Moreno: A Pensacola Creole by William S. Coker

Black Seminoles
Blacks and the Seminole Removal Debate, 1821-1835 by George Klos

Osceola and the Negroes by Kenneth W. Porter

The Negro Abraham by Kenneth W. Porter

Notes on Seminole Negroes in the Bahamas by Kenneth W. Porter

The Seminole Negroes of Andros Island, Bahamas by John M. Goggin

The Civil War and Emancipation
An Integrated Free School in Civil War Florida by Gerald Schwartz

Race and Civil War in South Florida by Irvin D. Solomon and Grace Erhart

A Plan to Homestead Freedmen in Florida in 1866 by F. Bruce Rosen

Carpetbagger Intrigues, Black Leadership, and a Southern Loyalist Triumph: Florida's Gubernatorial Election of 1872 by Canter Brown, Jr.

Chloe Merrick Reed: Freedom's First Lady by Sarah Whitmer Foster and John T. Foster, Jr.

Contract Labor in Florida During Reconstruction by Edward K. Eckert

Florida Black Codes by Joe M. Richardson

Custom, Law, and History: The Enduring Influence of Florida's "Black Code" by Jerrell H. Shofner

Harmon Murray: Black Desperado in Late Nineteenth Century Florida by Billy Jaynes Chandler

John Willis Menard: A Progressive Black in Post-Civil War Florida by Bess Beatty

Landlords and Tenants: Sharecropping and the Cotton Culture in Leon County, Florida, 1865-1885 by Clay Ouzts

Military Reconstruction and the Growth of Anti-Negro Sentiment in Florida, 1867 by Ralph L. Peek

Notes on Reconstruction in Tallahassee and Leon County, 1866-1876 from the Florida Historical Society

On the Land for Life: Black Tenant Farmers on Tall Timbers Plantation by Susan Hamburger

Racial Patterns of Labor in Postbellum Florida: Gainseville, 1870-1900 by David Sowell

Tallahassee's Black Churches, 1865-1885 by Robert L. Hall

The Freedmen's Bureau and Negro Labor in Florida by Joe M. Richardson

An Evaluation of the Freedmen's Bureau in Florida by Joe M. Richardson

The Labor League of Jacksonville: A Negro Union and White Strikebreakers by Jerrell H. Shofner

The Last Shall Be First: Northern Methodists in Reconstruction Jacksonville by John T. Foster, Jr., and Sarah Whitmer Foster

Union Academy: A Freedmen's Bureau School in Gainesville, Florida by Murray D. Laurie

"Where Are Now the Hopes I Cherished?" The Life and Times of Robert Meacham by Canter Brown, Jr.

"Yonder Come Day": Religious Dimensions of the Transition From Slavery to Freedom in Florida by Robert L. Hall

Twentieth Century
Black Immigrants: Bahamians in Early Twentieth-Century Miami by Raymond A. Mohl

Black Reaction to Segregation and Discrimination in Post-Reconstruction Florida by Wali R. Kharif

Blanche Armwood of Tampa and the Strategy of Interracial Cooperation by Keith Halderman

Booker T. Washington's Florida Incident, 1903-1904 by Arthur O. White

Colored Town: Miami's Black Community, 1896-1930 by Paul S. George

Florida and the Black Migration by Jerrell H. Shofner

GI Joe Meets Jim Crow: Racial Violence and Reform in World War II Florida by Gary R. Mormino

Loss of Identity on Pensacola's Past: A Creole Footnote by Donald H. Bragaw

Policing Miami's Black Community, 1896-1930 by Paul S. George

Ringing Up a School: Mary McLeod Bethune's Impact on Daytona by Audrey Thomas McCluskey

"So Goes the Negro": Race and Labor in Miami, 1940-1963 by Eric Tscheschlok

Something More Than A Creed: Mary McLeod Bethune's Aim of Integrated Autonomy As Director of Negro Affairs by Christopher E. Linsin

St. Augustine School: Seventy-Five Years of Negro Parochial Education in Gainesville, Florida by Harry A. Kersey

Status of Negroes in a Southern Port City in the Progressive Era: Pensacola, 1896-1920 by Donald H. Bragaw

The Female Protection and the Sunlight: Two Contemporary Negro Mutual Aid Societies by Bruce Ergood

When a Minority Becomes the Majority: Blacks in Jacksonville Politics, 1887-1907 by Edward N. Akin

"Without Compromise or Fear": Florida's African American Female Activists by Maxine D. Jones

Rosewood: Before & After from the Florida Historical Society

Rosewood and America in the Early Twentieth Century by David R. Colburn

The Rosewood Massacre and the Women Who Survived It by Maxine D. Jones

The Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights and School Desegregation in Sanford by Patricia Dillon

Civil Rights Leader Harry T. Moore and the Ku Klux Klan in Florida by James C. Clark

Reexamining the Early Career and Thought of Martin Luther King, Jr.: Volume I of the King Papers by David R. Colburn

Copyright 2004 The University of South Florida and The Africana Heritage Project. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. For more information, contact the Africana Heritage Project via e-mail.